Which of the following is Layer 3 attack?
- ARP attacks
- IP spoofing
- VLAN hopping
- MAC spoofing
As IP addresses reside on Layer 3 of the OSI model, IP spoofing is considered a Layer 3 attack.
Other types of spoofing attacks apart from IP spoofing are e-mail spoofing and Web spoofing. Do not confuse e-mail spoofing with pharming attacks. While both do involve being redirected to a fake Web site to obtain confidential information, pharming often involves poisoning the DNS cache to ensure the user is redirected to the fake site even if they correctly enter the real site’s URL. E-mail spoofing just involves clicking links in a hoax e-mail. Pharming is considered a more browser-related attack because it is designed to affect browser usage over the long term.
As ARP resolves IP addresses to MAC addresses, and MAC addresses reside on layer2 of the OSI model, ARP attacks are considered a Layer 2 attack.
As MAC addresses reside on layer 2 of the OSI model, MAC spoofing attacks are also considered Layer 2 attacks. MAC addresses are 48-bit addresses in hexadecimal that are permanently attached to the network interface by the manufacturer.
VLANs are Layer 2 concepts, therefore VLAN hopping attacks are considered Layer 2 attacks. Switches are typically deployed to create virtual local area networks (VLNs). The switch isolates the VLAN from the rest of the network to provide better security for the VLAN.
Objective: Attack Methods
Sub-Objective: Describe these attacks: Social engineering, Phishing, Evasion methods